Thibaut Le Magueresse thesis defense took place February 11, 2016 in the L.V.A. (Laboratory of Vibration and Acoustics of Lyon INSA). She ended the three years of work it has carried out between the company and L.V.A. and L.A.U.M. (University of Maine).
This thesis is available here.
Experimental characterization of acoustic sources is one of the essential steps for reducing noise produced by industrial machinery. The aim of the thesis is to develop a complete procedure to localize and quantify both stationary and non-stationary sound sources radiating on a surface mesh by the back-propagation of a pressure field measured by a microphone array. The inverse problem is difficult to solve because it is generally ill-conditioned and subject to many sources of error. In this context, it is crucial to rely on a realistic description of the direct sound propagation model. In the frequency domain, the equivalent source method has been adapted to the acoustic imaging problem in order to estimate the transfer functions between the source and the antenna, taking into account the wave scattering. In the time domain, the propagation is modeled as a convolution product between the source and an impulse response described in the time-wavenumber domain. It seemed appropriate to use a Bayesian approach to use all the available knowledge about sources to solve this problem. A priori information available about the acoustic sources have been equated and it has been shown that taking into account their spatial sparsity or their omnidirectional radiation could significantly improve the results. In the assumptions made, the inverse problem solution is written in the regularized Tikhonov form. The regularization parameter has been estimated by an empirical Bayesian approach. Its superiority over methods commonly used in the literature has been demonstrated through numerical and experimental studies. In the presence of high variability of the signal to noise ratio over time, it has been shown that it is necessary to update its value to obtain a satisfactory solution. Finally, the introduction of a missing variable to the problem reflecting the partial ignorance of the propagation model could improve, under certain conditions, the estimation of the complex amplitude of the sources in the presence of model errors.
The proposed developments have been applied to the estimation of the sound power emitted by an automotive power train using the Bayesian focusing method in the framework of the Ecobex project. The cyclo-stationary acoustic field generated by a fan motor was finally analyzed by the real-time near-field acoustic holography method.